HPC Architecture
  1. Shared-memory SIMD machines
  2. Distributed-memory SIMD machines
  3. Shared-memory MIMD machines
  4. Distributed-memory MIMD machines
  5. ccNUMA machines
  6. Clusters
  7. Processors
    1. AMD Opteron
    2. IBM POWER7
    3. IBM BlueGene/Q processor
    4. Intel Xeon
    5. The SPARC processors
  8. Accelerators
    1. GPU accelerators
      1. ATI/AMD
      2. nVIDIA
    2. General computational accelerators
      1. Intel Xeon Phi
    3. FPGA accelerators
      1. Convey
      2. Kuberre
      3. SRC
  9. Interconnects
    1. Infiniband
Available systems
  • The Bull bullx system
  • The Cray XC30
  • The Cray XE6
  • The Cray XK7
  • The Eurotech Aurora
  • The Fujitsu FX10
  • The Hitachi SR16000
  • The IBM BlueGene/Q
  • The IBM eServer p775
  • The NEC SX-9
  • The SGI Altix UV series
  • Systems disappeared from the list
    Systems under development

    In November 2012 the latest product from ATI (now wholly owned by AMD) was announced. It is the ATI Firestream s10000 card. In we give some specifications as are now known. The s10000 components are made with 28 nm feature size. The peak power requirement has increased significantly from a 250 W range to 375 W. However, in fact two graphics engines are fitted into the s10000, to accomodate both computation and high-end graphics.


    Table 2.1:Some specifications for the ATI/AMD Firestream s10000 GPU.
    Number of cores 3584
    Memory (GDDR5) 6 GB
    Clock Cycle 825 MHz
    Internal memory bandwidth 2×240 GB/s
    Peak Perfomance (32-bit) 5.91 Tflop/s
    Peak Perfomance (64-bit) 1.48 Tflop/s
    Power requirement (peak) ≤ 375 W
    Interconnect (PCIe Gen3) 16×, 16 GB/s
    Error correction Yes
    Floating-point support Partial (32/64-bit)

    The specifications given indicate that per core 2 32-bit floating-point results per cycle can be generated, the result of an add and a multiply operation. The 64-bit performance is a quarter of this. Whether these results can be produced independently or result from fused operations is not known because of the lack of information. ATI/AMD has catched up with NVIDIA GPUs (discussed below) in that the Firestream s10000 now also supports error correction.
    Like its direct competitor, NVIDIA, ATI offers a free Software Development Kit, SDK which supports OpenCL 1.2, Direct X11 and ComputeX. The earlier languages like BROOK+ and the very low level Close-To-Metal software development vehicles are no longer supported.